What is Computer? General Introduction of Computer;

General Introduction of Computer

What is Computer?

A computer is a fast and accurate electronic device that accepts data s through input device then store and process them, and resulted data are displayed from the output device.

What are the Characteristics of Computer?

The computer is the powerful machine. It can perform a large number of tasks. The main capacities of the computer are work length, speed accuracy, diligence, versatility memory and automation.

Word Length:

A digital computer operates on binary digits-0 and 1. It manipulates data only in terms of 0 and 1. A binary digit is called a bit. The number of bits that computer can process at a time in parallel is called its word length. Word lengths computer is varied such as 8, 16, 32, 64 bits. It is the measurement of the computing power of the computer.


The time taken to perform any task by computer is called the speed of computer as you know a computer can work very fast. It takes only a few seconds for calculations that we take hours to complete. The speed of a computer is measured in MIPS (Millions Inch per Seconds)


A computer is an accurate machine. It can perform a large number of takes without errors but if we feed wrong data to the computer it returns the same wrong output or wrong information. If the computer hardware parts are able to work and given input is correct the computer can give 100% accurate result. The process of giving correct result and wrong result is called GIGO (Garbage In Garbage Out).


The capacity of performing a repetitive task without getting tired is called diligence capacity of a computer. A computer is free from tiredness, lack of concentration, fatigue, etc. It can work for hours without creating any error.


The capacity of performing more than one work is called versatility of a computer. It means the capacity to perform a completely different type of work. You may use your computer to prepare payroll slips, office work, mathematical calculation, word processing etc.


A Computer has mass storage section where we can store a large volume of data for future work. Such data are easily accessible when needed. Magnetic disk, magnetic tape, and optical disk are used as the mass storage devices. The storage capacity is measured in terms of KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB etc.

  • 0 or 1= 1 Bit( Binary Digit)
  • 4 Bit=1Nibble
  • 8 Bit=1Byte
  • 1024Byte=1KiloByte
  • 1024KB=1MB
  • 1024MB=1GB
  • 1024GB=1TB
  • 1024TB=1PB
  • 1024PB=1EB


This is an automatic machine and performs the work without the intervention of a user. A user is required to give the data and utilize the result but the processing is automatic.

Power of remembering: 

Computer has the power of storing any amount of information or data. Any information can be stored and recalled as long as you require it, for any numbers of years. It depends entirely upon you how much data you want to store in a computer and when to lose or retrieve these data.


A computer can process the large volume of data in great speed. There are different types of operation during processing such as input/ output operation logic operation comparison operation text manipulation operation.

What are the Applications of Computer?

Compute is used in large Ares such as banking, education, hospital, industries, research, hospital, data processing, science and research, weather forecasting, engineering, offices, railways, home, advertisement, communication, simulations and etc.

  1. Banking and financial Company
  2. Education
  3. Industries
  4. Research
  5. Hospital
  6. Home
  7. Desktop Publishing
  8. Weather forecasting
  9. Communication
  10. Schools and Colleges
  11. Advertisement
  12. Offices
  13. Railways

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What are the Types of Computer?

There are different types of computer type; In this article, we’ve explained as per different computer types segmentation;

On the Basis of Working in Principle

  1. Analog Computer
  2. Digital Computer
  3. Hybrid Computer

On the Basis of Size

  1. Super Computer
  2. Mainframe Computer
  3. Micro Computer
  4. Mini Computer

On the Basis of Brand

  1. IBM PC (International Business Machine)
  2. IBM Compatible
  3. Apple Macintosh

What is Analog Computer?

The computer which is work with natural phenomenon and physical values like frequency, earthquake, volcano, the flow of water, speed of wind, weight, light etc, are known as an analog computer.

The analog computer is based on continuous data’s and their output is also continuous in the form of a graph. It is especially used for scientific work, medical or industrial field.

  • It works on Continuous data. It is measure natural or physical values.
  • It is not a versatile machine.
  • It is Accurate than a digital computer.
  • It is not General purpose computer.
  • It gives its output in form of graph or curve.

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What is Digital Computer?

The digital computers are based on digital values. Example binary number system, The digital computer is based on two binary digits 0 or 1. 0 denoted by Off or 1 denoted by On, The digital computer works on the basis of discontinuous data.

  • A digital computer works on the numerical problems of the business or scientific field.
  • It works on the basis of Discontinuous or discrete data.
  • It is based on principle 0 or 1.
  • It is general purpose computer.
  • It is versatile or 100% accurate.
  • It has very high storage capacity.
  • It has faster processing speed.

What is Hybrid Computer?

Hybrid means a combination of two or more element. It is the combination of Analog Computer of Digital Computer. It can work on the physical or continuous data like an analog computer or It can also work on the discontinuous or discrete values like a digital computer.

  • It is also not a General purpose computer.
  • It works on continuous as well as discontinuous value.
  • It converts the analog value to digital value or digital value in analog.
  • It is really very high cost.

On the Basis of Size

  1. Super Computer
  2. Mainframe Computer
  3. Micro Computer
  4. Mini Computer

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What is Super Computer?

Multi-user multiprocessor large computer of very high efficiency and storing capacity is called supercomputer able to solve very difficult and complex problem within nanoseconds. A number of RISC( Reduced Instruction’s Set Seconds) a processor is used. Its word length is 64 bits.

Application of Super Computer

  • Used to forecast the weather and global climates.
  • Used in military research and defense system.
  • In automobile, aircraft, and spacecraft designing.
  • In encrypting and decoding sensitive intelligence information.
  • Used in seismography, plasma, and nuclear research.
  • Protein folding analysis
  • Study of DNA stricter and gene engineering.
  • Digital film rendering.

What is Mainframe Computer?

It is also very powerful multi-user computer used in larger business organizations. Examination department of examinations, industries, and defense to process data of complex nature. It can response several hundred requests very quickly. It uses several PU for data processing.

More than 200 users can use at a time because it works on the basis of time-sharing mode. It word length is 48 bit to 64 bits. IBM built the first mainframe computer system.

Applications of Mainframe Computer;

  • Government and civilian
  • Banking account management
  • Credit card processing
  • Marketing
  • Business data processing in a large organization
  • Air traffic control system
  • Industrial design.

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What is Minicomputer?

Minicomputers are larger and more powerful than most microcomputer but are smaller and less powerful than most large mainframe computer systems. However, this is not a precise destination. It is also a multi-user computer and supports more than dozens of people.

What is Microcomputer?

In 1976 the first Personal computer –Apple1, Apple Computer is designed. In 1981 August, IBM has announced the IBM 5150 PC in New York. Now The Apple series of microcomputers was developed by Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs in 1976. This used 8-bit microprocessor chips.

This Chip-enabled them to put together a complete a computer a keyboard for input, and processors in memory and screen all in a small box.

Apple II is known as a personal computer. IBM PC and its compatible versions have the largest share in PC Market. Most of the users of the world have IBM PC, But MACs Have its own users, most people interested in graphics works and publishing sectors.

On the Basis of Model: 

  • XT computers (Extra Technology): It cannot support GUI based operating systems Its processing speed is 4.77 M Hz and Intel 8080, 8086, 8088 series of microprocessors in used.
  • AT Computer (Advance Technology): It Supports GUI based operating systems. Its speed is 2 G Hz and word length 64 bits. Its processors are Intel series of 80286, 80386, 80486, Pentium I, Pentium II etc.
  • PS/2 Computer: It is a laptop computer with rechargeable and battery based system It is operated with OS/2 Operating system.


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