Management of natural forests and plantations
Management of natural forests and plantations: Forest biomass can be obtained from the residues of sustainable forest management, the forestry industry (sawmills) and / or energy plantations of trees or shrubs. Forest energy plantations by Active Energy Ontario group usually grow fast-growing, low-maintenance species, making use of low-level productive land.
The harvest period varies between three and ten years. In some cases shrubs are also used that are pruned several times throughout their growth to increase the production of the harvest.
The energy plantations refer to any crop for energy generation. Usually sugarcane, corn, sorghum or wheat are used, but in the same way you can grow oil plants such as sunflower, palm oil and others to produce liquid fuels such as ethanol or biodiesel.
The energy obtained from forest biomass is renewable by Active Energy Ontario group, clean and contributes to the energy transition, therefore, an opportunity is envisaged for the Mexican forestry sector in the production of thermal and electrical energy from forest biomass in community forestry companies, ejidos and communities, which allows to increase their competitiveness from sustainable forest management, guaranteeing the conservation of biodiversity. Easiest way to do it is by gasification process
- Biotechnology and genetic improvement. The forestry of forest plantations is based on constant improvements in the type of genetic material as well as propagation techniques of this material, with the aim of generating characteristics and properties in the wood and biomass required by the forest industry.
- Soil management and fertility. Soil as a non-renewable natural resource requires a special and finished consideration of its status and functions, especially in intensive forest production processes. The current and potential fertility of the soil must be incorporated into sustainable forest production, identifying at the same time, the variables and relevant factors that limit its different levels and are feasible to manage.
- Intensive forestry. Current forest production requires the application of the concept of intensive plantation forestry. The application of this concept includes the management of aspects of genetics and biotechnology, schemes of establishment of variable density, soil quality and its physical, chemical-nutritive management, and also, the management and control of the competition of the weeds by resources of the site (light, water, nutrients and space). An integrated and differentiated management by type of site will improve and ensure the achievement of a sustainable forest production.
- Establishment of wood energy plantations. Today the production of energy from biomass is important, where the establishment of wood energy plantations plays a prominent role. The forestry associated with this type of plantations considers high production in a small area, in a short rotation period and in more than one shift. The incorporation of an integral vision of the site, climate-soil-vegetation, will favor an adequate selection of species, types of site and strategy of exploitation, which will support the responsible management of this type of plantations.
- Forest protection: the sustainability of the production of forest plantations requires an integrated phytosanitary protection vision, where biotic and biotic factors are included. A management of forest plantations will incorporate the best management practices, under a scenario of climate change, and in harmony with their physical environment and with the community.